Performance and scalability issues have bottlenecked the future development and real-life application of popular mainchains, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. Many methods have been employed to solve this problem, but all of them have their own pros and cons.
The Impossible Trinity – safety, decentralization and scalability, coined by the blockchain world, bars the way to the future and the industry has fought hard to figure out an optimized solution. Sharding, proposed by Ethereum, has been viewed as one such candidate.
What is sharding?
Sharding technology splits a network into smaller partitions called shards, which contain an independent state and transaction history. The idea behind this is to divide a huge amount of workload into smaller pieces to make life easier for every participating node.
If sharding were to be adopted, each node will only need to keep a part of the network’s information, instead of downloading the whole ledger, which can lead to a large data file. Subsets of nodes grouped into one shard will only process transactions specific to that shard. By doing this, the network will be able to process many transactions in parallel, and the performance will continue to increase with more nodes joining in, thus making the network highly scalable.
Limitation of sharding
Of course, sharding carries both pros and cons. The security of the network might be compromised as sharding makes it possible to launch Single-Shard Takeover Attack (1% Attack), where an attacker can create a malicious shard by taking over the majority of collators in a single shard. A 1% Attack is easier to be launched compared to the 51% Attack, which requires more than 50% of the network’s computing power.
To solve this problem, one suggestion is that every shard gets assigned a validator that is random-sampled from a pool. This way, the validator does not know which shard it gets beforehand, so chances it will collude with a malicious node are minimized.
However, this untested solution raises questions. Who would be a qualified validator? How to incentivise validators? What if a validator fails and a malicious node gets validated? What if there are too many malicious nodes causing the random-sample approach to be de facto ineffective? All this needs to be carefully addressed.
Apart from the above, sharding also brings forth other problems. First, by partitioning the whole network into smaller shards, it is effectively making the whole network more susceptible to attacks as it is always easier to take control of a part of the network than the whole network.
Next, with a validator assigned to each node, the problem of single-point-of-failure appears again, and this could cause the network to be less decentralized. A more complex mechanism will, however, eat into efficiency and defeat the initial purpose.
Last but not least, while a validator might be able to protect the network from being jeopardized by a single malicious node, all the data in that attacked node are left unprotected.
So it seems that while sharding is improving performance, it is also sacrificing safety and degree of decentralization, which is surely not an ideal solution.
What can be done?
Blockchain Directed Acyclic Graph (B-DAG) is a proprietary solution by the SmartX project. Unlike a blockchain, every single transaction is itself a “block” in a B-DAG system. From this perspective, B-DAG resembles DAG. However, unlike other DAG projects, SmartX has different Epochs, which subdivide the network by a given time-cycle and main blocks are randomly produced in each Epoch. The main blocks will be linearly linked to form the Most Heavily Weighted Chain, which resembles the chain-structure of blockchain.
With this unique B-DAG technology, SmartX is harvesting both the advantages of traditional blockchain and DAG. It is faster, cheaper-to-use and more scalable compared with the traditional blockchain, while it is also safer and more promising compared to DAG.
Like traditional trading systems, SmartX uses a balance account model. During every Epoch cycle, if it is found that an output account for a certain transaction block does not exist, the account will be created across the network. The input amount will be transferred to this account and the input must have sufficient balance. Each account balance is determined by the difference between the input and output transaction components.
The system ensures that every transaction is treated as idempotent. The end result is the same whether a transaction is executed once, multiple times, or repeated. Duplicated transactions are recognized by the random Nonce value of the transaction.
SmartX will have several genesis nodes by default, each staking a minimum of 10 million tokens in order to allow participation in node operation. SmartX allows for mining nodes to join and leave at any time. The purpose of this is to select nodes that have a stronger willingness to participate.
Sharding is only a band-aid solution to the fundamentally broken system of Blockchain. Sharding breaks the network down into partitions to deal with workloads but compromises decentralization and security. Blockchain needs to be completely reimagined, not fixed after the fact. The project SmartX does just this through its own proprietary, innovative and all-new DAG structural algorithm – B-DAG, which can integrate the transaction partitions created by any nodes around the world. Since SmartX operates like a flow chart and every transaction does not need to pass through nodes sequentially, the project does not have the same memory issues as Blockchain. This feature also gives SmartX a higher transaction speed and allows implementation of more than one consensus mechanism.
Sharding will always have to operate on a Proof of Work system and hold all transactions as “pending” before packaging them at the same time. SmartX is using both Proof of Work and Proof of Stake. By doing this, SmartX is able to take advantage of both types of consensus mechanisms. Every node participating in SmartX’s network will have to make a pledge and ensure that it has enough bandwidth and capacity to support itself. SmartX will use proprietary Blockchain-DAG technology to achieve decentralization, optimized handling capacity and delay validation at the same time.
Telegram Channel: https://t.me/smartx_en
Is Bex500 an alternative to BitMEX?
An all around review of Bex500
Bex500 is a young but rapid-growing exchange, less adversarial than BitMEX, but with higher leverage than Binance, Bex500 has enough strings to attract many crypto traders.
Those dissatisfied with the old exchange, may find Bex500 exchange with a stable system with no manipulation or “overload”, pleasant UX, user-friendly tool kits, and around-clock customer service.
Bex500 says they are making crypto margin trading “easier” and giving you a better return.
Can they really achieve that? We conduct a comprehensive review as below to see if it is a trustworthy exchange
Question 1. What features does Bex500 have?
Bex500 offers perpetual BTC futures as well as three other cryptos including ETH, XRP and LTC, all paired against USDT. You may find Bex500 doing a good job aggregating most important features traders need for a robust trading experience with better return.
-A fair trade with no overload
Many traders are familiar with “overload” problem, which disables placing orders in peak trading times. It is suspected to be insider manipulations by exchanges which can cost users entire portfolios.
Bex500, with its unmatched TPS (claimed to be over 10,000 orders per second), ensures that the trading…
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Depending on what country you live in, your cryptocurrency will be subject to different tax rules. The questions below address implications within the United States, but similar issues arise around the world. As always, check with a local tax professional to assess your own particular tax situation.
1. Tax loss harvesting
Tax loss harvesting is a common strategy in the world of investing where you sell your assets that will realize a capital loss. All you need to do is look at your investments and see which ones you bought for more than they are currently worth. By selling at a loss, you can potentially dramatically lower your net capital gains and thus reduce your taxable income. Given the market we are currently in, there are abundant opportunities to harvest losses and save on your tax bill. Cryptocurrency tax calculators have built specific tax loss harvesting tools that you can use automatically detect which coins present…
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Bitcoin has been teetering on the edge of the mainstream for some time now, with various companies accepting payments in the digital currency. The reason why it hasn’t yet taken off is that it doesn’t have enough practical applications to encourage the everyday person to start using it. But the market is there for alternative payments, and this is particularly apparent in the online casino industry when new sites crop up. For example, Johnny Jackpot is a smashing new casino brand that accepts a number of payment systems including Neteller, Skrill, and Paysafecard. Global customers want to be able to use options like these which were designed for the internet.
The problem with all of the aforementioned systems…